Although neutrons do not carry an electrical charge, they have a mass comparable to that of protons, so different isotopes have different atomic weight. Because of the different number of neutrons, carbon-12 and carbon-14 differ with respect to radioactivity. Carbon-14, on the other hand, undergoes radioactive decay:e (half-life is 5720 years)The other common isotope of carbon is carbon-13. "What Is the Difference Between Carbon-12 and Carbon-14?
Carbon-13 has 6 protons, just like other carbon isotopes, but it has 7 neutrons. Although 15 isotopes of carbon are known, the natural form of the element consists of a mixture of only three of them: carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14. Measuring the difference in the radio between carbon-12 and carbon-14 is useful for dating the age of organic matter since a living organism is exchanging carbon and maintaining a certain ratio of isotopes.
Since each beta particle represents one decayed carbon-14 atom, we know how many carbon-14 atoms decay during a month.
Chemists have already determined how many atoms are in a given mass of each element, such as carbon.4 So if we weigh a lump of carbon, we can calculate how many carbon atoms are in it.
The radiocarbon half-life or decay rate has been determined at 5,730 years.
Next comes the question of how scientists use this knowledge to date things.
So even we humans are radioactive because of trace amounts of radiocarbon in our bodies.Many people assume that rocks are dated at “millions of years” based on radiocarbon (carbon-14) dating. The most well-known of all the radiometric dating methods is radiocarbon dating. Carbon-14 can yield dates of only “thousands of years” before it all breaks down.If carbon-14 has formed at a constant rate for a very long time and continually mixed into the biosphere, then the level of carbon-14 in the atmosphere should remain constant.If the level is constant, living plants and animals should also maintain a constant carbon-14 level in them.The standard way of expressing the decay rate is called the half-life.5 It’s defined as the time it takes half a given quantity of a radioactive element to decay.So if we started with 2 million atoms of carbon-14 in our measured quantity of carbon, then the half-life of radiocarbon would be the time it takes for half, or 1 million, of those atoms to decay.Atoms of carbon-12 have 6 neutrons, while atoms of carbon-14 contain 8 neutrons.neutral atom would have the same number of protons and electrons, so a neutral atom of carbon-12 or carbon-14 would have 6 electrons. After radiocarbon forms, the nuclei of the carbon-14 atoms are unstable, so over time they progressively decay back to nuclei of stable nitrogen-14.3 A neutron breaks down to a proton and an electron, and the electron is ejected. The ejected electrons are called beta particles and make up what is called beta radiation. Different carbon-14 atoms revert to nitrogen-14 at different times, which explains why radiocarbon decay is considered a random process.To measure the rate of decay, a suitable detector records the number of beta particles ejected from a measured quantity of carbon over a period of time, say a month (for illustration purposes).