The city was called Atralissa by the Arab traveller Idrisi and Strelisa, Stralitsa or Stralitsion by the Crusaders.as opposed to the prevailing Slavic etymology among Bulgarian cities and towns.Air pollution is a problem in Sofia due to its location in the Sofia valley, which is surrounded by mountains that reduce the ability of the air to self-clean.The air is polluted mostly by particulate matters and nitrogen oxides.
The earliest tribes who settled were the Thracians. Sofia's area was populated by the Thracian tribe of Tilataei.
Sofia has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with an average annual temperature of 10.6 °C (51.1 °F). In the coldest days temperatures can drop below −15 °C (5 °F), most notably in January.
The lowest recorded temperature is −28.3 °C (−19 °F) (24 January 1942). In summer, the city generally remains slightly cooler than other parts of Bulgaria, due to its higher altitude.
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