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Subjects completed a one-time only online survey to assess current health and retrospective dating violence histories from age 13 to 19 (described below).The recruitment procedures were as follows: To reduce response bias, subjects were first asked about health before they were asked about dating violence victimization.Asking subjects details about dating violence first, which could be a traumatic experience, could potentially cause bias in their responses to the health items; specifically, subjects might provide lower health ratings if the experience of completing the dating violence questions was traumatic [], retrospective assessment is the field’s standard for capturing adolescent dating violence experiences and our assessment method used memory prompts to facilitate recall.

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The findings from Exner-Cortens’ study support those from other studies showing an increased risk of violence re-victimization in late adolescence/young adulthood if experienced earlier in adolescence [], the violence assessment was limited. These studies have shown that adults who experience physical/sexual types of violence within intimate (e.g., dating, marital) relationships tend to have more pronounced adverse health impacts (e.g., depression, chronic disease) than adults who experience non-physical types of abuse only (e.g., controlling behavior, insults) [].The proportion of females and males who suffered non-dating physical abuse before age 18 (being punched, kicked, choked, or receiving a more serious physical punishment from a parent or other adult guardian) was 7.2% and 8.6%, respectively.The proportion of females and males who were touched in a sexual place or forced to touch another person when they did not want to before age 18 was 12% and 2.9%, respectively.We created the following exposure groups based on prior studies that have conceptually and empirically examined physical and sexual violence within a single category [], we asked about 1) whether subjects had ever been bullied between ages 13 and 19 (1 question); and 2) whether subjects experienced other types of abuse before age 18, including being punched, kicked, choked, or receiving a more serious physical punishment from a parent or other adult guardian (1 question) and being touched in a sexual place or being forced to touch another person when they did not want to (1 question). Chi-square tests were used to compare health indicators for subjects who reported any dating violence victimization with those who reported no victimization.Generalized linear models with a log link and robust sandwich variance estimators were used to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs) for each dichotomous health indicator for exposed compared to unexposed subjects, using a modified Possion regression approach [].The multivariable models were adjusted for age and other non-dating abuse victimization (bullying; punched, kicked, choked by a parent/guardian; touched in a sexual place, forced to touch someone sexually).were at increased risk of smoking (prevalence ratio = 3.95); depressive symptoms (down/hopeless, PR = 2.00; lost interest, PR = 1.79); eating disorders (using diet aids, PR = 1.98; fasting, PR = 4.71; vomiting to lose weight, PR = 4.33); and frequent sexual behavior (5 intercourse and oral sex partners, PR = 2.49, PR = 2.02; having anal sex, PR = 2.82).The sample comprised 585 subjects (ages 18 to 21; mean age, 19.8, SD = 1.0) recruited from The Ohio State University who completed an online survey to assess: 1) current health (depression, disordered eating, binge drinking, smoking, and frequent sexual behavior); and 2) dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 (retrospectively assessed using eight questions covering physical, sexual, and non-physical abuse, including technology-related abuse involving stalking/harassment via text messaging and email).Multivariable models compared health indicators in never-exposed subjects to those exposed to physical/sexual or non-physical dating violence only.Specifically, our study includes an expanded assessment of how dating violence types relate to health in late adolescence, including dating violence types that are relevant to today’s adolescents [], has affected teen relationships, including violence occurring in those relationships.For example, cell phones and other electronic mechanisms provide pathways for increased monitoring and harassment of dating/romantic partners and may exacerbate jealousy [].


  1. Aug 3, 2017. Healthy relationship behaviors can have a positive effect on a teen's emotional development. Unhealthy, abusive, or violent relationships can have severe consequences and short- and long-term negative effects on a developing teen. Youth who experience dating violence are more likely to experience the.

  2. Related AAP Policy and Publications. Role of the Pediatrician in Youth Violence Prevention · Longitudinal Associations Between Teen Dating Violence Victimization and Adverse Health Outcomes​.

  3. Pediatrics. 2013 Jan;131171-8. doi 10.1542/peds.2012-1029. Epub 2012 Dec 10. Longitudinal associations between teen dating violence victimization and adverse health outcomes. Exner-Cortens D1, Eckenrode J, Rothman E. Author information 1Department of Human Development and Bronfenbrenner Center for.

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